Biological properties

Carcinogenic effects

Experiments with human bronchial epithelial cells and mice has shown a carcinogenic effect of tungsten. The genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were shown to be deregulated by tungsten [8].


Tungsten has been used for permanent implants for a long time, as it is considered inert. Multiple examples of implant corrosion have been reported, however, with failure by dissolution to varying extents up to total loss, with associated emission of tungstate ions and elevated blood serum levels measured [9].