Reaction of gadolinium with acids
Gadolinium metal dissolves readily in dilute sulphuric acid, forming colourless Gd(III) ions and hydrogen gas, H2.
2 Gd(s) + 3 H2SO4(aq) 2 Gd3+(aq) + 3 SO42−(aq) + 3 H2(g)
Reaction of gadolinium with air
Gadolinium react slowly with O2 at room temperature, and burns readily, forming gadolinium(III) oxide, Gd2O3.
4 Gd(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Gd2O3(s)
Reaction of gadolinium with halogens
Gadolinium metal reacts with all the halogens, forming the corresponding gadolinium(III) halides.
2 Gd(s) + 3 F2(g) 2 GdF3(s) [white]
2 Gd(s) + 3 Cl2(g) 2 GdCl3(s) [white]
2 Gd(s) + 3 Br2(g) 2 GdBr3(s) [white]
2 Gd(s) + 3 I2(g) 2 GdI3(s) [yellow]
Reaction of gadolinium with water
Gadolinium reacts slowly with cold water, and quickly with hot water, forming gadolinium hydroxide, Gd(OH)3, and hydrogen gas (H2).
2 Gd(s) + 6 H2O(g) 2 Gd(OH)3(aq) + 3 H2(g)