Biological properties

Acute toxicity

Symptoms for gadolinium chloride on rats were decreased respiration, lethargy, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea. Sm also induced muscular spasms [5].

Lanthanides exhibits chemical and physical characteristics similar to calcium (Ca), causing lanthanides, especially La, Pr, Nd, Tm and Tb, to displace and replace Ca2+ in different cellular functions, competing for active binding sites. This will influence the chemical processes of exposed organisms with Ca-dependent biological systems, interfering with their metabolism, resulting in functional impairment [6].

Chronic toxicity

Gd did not affect the growth of rats and produced no significant effects on the haematology of the animals [5].

Occular irritation

Gadolinium chloride solution had an irritation effect on the eyes in rats when administered. After 24 h no evidence of irritation or damage could be seen [5].

Skin irritation

Gd did not display any adverse effects in intact rabbit skin. On abrasions the chemicals induced skin irritation, most due to the acidic nature of the chemicals. The effect was also seen in subctaneous injections in guinea-pigs [5].

Effects on isolated intestines

Gadolinium chloride causes depression of tonus and contractility of ileum. Also the salts showed antispasmodic effects [5].

Pharmacological effects

Tests on cats showed that gadolinium chloride when injected can cause transient hypotension and decrease in femoral blood flow. At elevated concentrations the chloride can cause complete cardiovascular collapse [5].