Chemical reactions

Reaction of titanium with acids

Titanium does not react with most acids, under normal conditions. It will react with hot hydrochloric acid, and it reacts with HF, forming Ti(III) complexes and hydrogen gas, H2.

2 Ti(s) + 12 HCl(aq) 2 Ti[Cl6]3−(aq) + 3 H2(g) + 6 H+(aq)
2 Ti(s) + 12 HF(aq) 2 [TiF6]3−(aq) + 3 H2(g) + 6 H+(aq)

Reaction of titanium with air

Titanium does not react with air under normal conditions. If brought to burn, titanium will react with both oxygen, O2, and nitrogen, N2.

Ti(s) + O2(g) TiO2(s) [white]
2 Ti(s) + N2(g) 2 TiN(s)

Reaction of titanium with bases

Titanium does not appear to react wih alkalis, under normal conditions, even when heated.

Reaction of titanium with halogens

Titanium reacts with halogens, when heated, forming the corresponding titanium(IV) halides

Ti(s) + 2 F2(g) TiF4(s) [white]
Ti(s) + 2 Cl2(g) TiCl4(s) [colourless]
Ti(s) + 2 Br2(g) TiBr4(s) [orange]
Ti(s) + 2 I2(g) TiI4(s) [dark brown]

Reaction of titanium with water

Titanium does not reacts with water, under normal conditions. If the water is heated to steam, it will react with titanium, forming titanium(IV) oxide, TiO2, and hydrogen, H2

Ti(s) + 2 H2O(g) TiO2(s) [white] + 2 H2(g)

Quantitative analysis

Method - Inductively Coupled Plasma Method [2]. A portion of the sample is digested in a combination of acids. The digest is aspirated into an 8,000 K argon plasma where resulting light emission is quantified for 30 elements simultaneously.

Method limit of detection in water = 0.005 mg/L
Method limit of detection in soil = 1.00 mg/kg