Used for:

- Stabilizer in alloys [4]
- As an alternative to thorium oxide in welding electrodes [4]
- In ceramics as an opacifyer and a strengthening agent [4]
- In glass as a polishing agent, as a decolorizer to stabilize impurities, as an opacifying agent for near UV radiation and as a discoloring inhibitor for high energy electron bombardment (i.e. cathode ray tubes) [4]
- As a catalyst in various organic reactions [4]