Occurrence, isolation & synthesis


Scandium is found in the Earth's crust, 2-25 ppm (w/w), in the mineral such as thortveitite, davidite, ytterbite, orthite and cerrite [4]. The isotope found in nature is 45Sc (100%, stable) [4].

In pure form, scandium occurs in the following crystal forms:
α-form: Hexagonal close-packed crystal [4]
β-form: face-centered cubic*) [4]

*) Inconclusive data.