Occurrence, isolation & synthesis


In nature, silicon is found in the Earth's crust, ~27.6 % (w/w), as silica (quartz, sand, sandstone) or silicates (e.g. feldspar/orthoclase, kaolinite, anothite) [6]. The isotopes found in nature are 28Si (92.18 %, stable), 29Si (4.71 %, stable) and 30Si (3.12 %, stable) [6].

In pure solid form, silicon exist in a body-centered cubic structure [3] and in an amorphous form [6].