Occurrence, isolation & synthesis


In nature, inorganic carbon is found in the Earth's crust, ~270 ppm [4]. The isotopes found in nature are 12C (98.892 %, stable) and 13C (1.108 %, stable) [4].

In pure solid form, carbon exist in the following forms:
Diamond, face-centered cubic structure [4]
Graphite/Black lead [4]
Amorphous (coal, carbon black) [4]
Fullerenes/Buckminsterfullerenes, C60 spherical molecule [4]

Diamonds are found in South Africa, Zaire, the Gold Coast, Beazil, and Arkasas, USA [5].


Carbon in the form of graphite is mined in Mexico, Madagascar, Ceylon and Canada [5].